Posted in Books, Hinduism, India, Vedas, Vedic

Vedic literature–4

The Yajur Veda is the second samhita.

It is later than the Rig Veda. It may be dated around 1000 BCE or earlier.

While the Rig Veda has references to rituals and ritual sacrifices, the Yajur Veda was specially composed for rituals. It has both verses and prose passages specially arranged for recitation during yajnas [sacrifices]. They are known as yajus.

Many verses from the Rig Veda are found in the Yajur Veda but they are arranged differently.

The Yajur Veda has several shakhas or branches with different versions of the text. The two main versions are the  Shukla [White] Yajur Veda and the  Krishna [Black] Yajur Veda. Even these have variants.

The Vajasaneyi Samhita is the text we have of the Shukla Yajur Veda. The two variants or shakhas of the Vajasaneyi Samhita that are known today are the Kanva and Madhyandina.

The Vajasaneyi Samhita has forty to forty-one adhyayas [sections or chapters]. These are subdivided into khandikas. Each khandika contains a prayer or mantra.

The Krishna Yajur Veda contains the prayers of the first half of the Vajasaneyi Samhita. It adds to these with explanations.

There are many variants of the Krishna Yajurveda. Among them is the Taittiriya Samhita. The Taittiriya Samhita has seven kandas or sections, subdivided into prapathakas, which are again subdivided into anuvakas for recitation.

In the Yajur Veda the gods are the same as those in the Rig Veda.

The sacrificial rituals described are many. They include the agni or fire sacrifices, the chaturmasya or four-monthly sacrifice, the ashvamedha and other animal sacrifices, and the Soma sacrifices.

More will be added later on the elaborate sacrificial rituals that developed.

Posted in Books, Hinduism, India, Vedas, Vedic

Vedic literature–3

Out of the four Vedic Samhitas, the Rig Veda is the most important, and the base for the other three samhitas.

The Rig Veda is written in an ancient version of Sanskrit, different from later classical Sanskrit.

It is the earliest text known in India.

It is generally dated to 1500 BCE, but it could be earlier. A broad time frame of 4000-1500 BCE seems reasonable.

The Rig Veda has 1028 suktas [hymns or songs] with a total of 10,552 riks [verses].

The suktas are arranged in ten mandalas or sections.

The text includes prayers to deities, such as Indra, Agni, Soma and Surya [ gods of war, fire, a divine drink, and the sun] as well as several others.

There are also some philosophical suktas.

It has additional information on wars, battles, tribes and clans, places, rivers, animals and nature.

A detailed analysis of the text indicates that the rivers, tribes and clans can be located between Afghanistan and the river Yamuna in India.

Posted in Books, Hinduism, India, Vedas

Vedic literature–2

The second part of the series on Vedic literature.

Out of the four main groups which form part of Vedic literature: Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads, the most important are the Samhitas.

Samhita means ‘a collection’.

The four Vedic Samhitas are:

The Rig Veda

The Yajur Veda

The Sama Veda

The Atharva Veda.

Posted in Books, J Krishnamurti, Philosophy

J Krishnamurti : A new biography

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Jiddu Krishnamurti [1895-1986] is very relevant today, as he spoke about how the world could be transformed, through the transformation of each individual. It is when one looks deep into oneself, without self-praise or condemnation, when one sees oneself clearly, one’s motives, ambitions and desires, that a change takes place, through that very act of seeing.

Everyone wants to live in peace and harmony, but Krishnamurti points out that this cannot be achieved through social activism, but through a transformation of each person.

This biography presents his strange story, from his early life to his adoption at the age of 14 by Theosophists, who proclaimed this backward, Telugu speaking boy to be the new messiah, the coming world teacher, and further through the many difficulties he faced, as he became a teacher of a new philosophy, a philosophy that he travelled across the world to present to anyone who was interested in peace and transformation.

But was Krishnamurti himself transformed? What was Krishnamurti, the man like, was he different from Krishnamurti, the philosopher? This book looks at these and other questions, and also at the essentials of his philosophy, his educational theories, and some of the educational experiments in schools following his ideas.

Read more in this book.

 

 

 

Posted in Books, History, world history

Who is Claudette Colvin?

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With the killing of George Floyd in the USA the Civil Rights Movement is back in focus. It seems unbelievable that the act for voting rights for African Americans was passed only in 1965, and that even in the 1950s they were strictly segregated in schools, buses and elsewhere. In buses, they had to sit at the back. Many who have a basic knowledge of the movement have heard about Rosa Parks, the young woman who refused to give up her seat to a white person in a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, on 1 December 1955, and who sparked a movement to end segregation. Rosa Parks became a symbol of the movement, but there were many others who remained unknown. Claudette Colvin was perhaps the first of these to be arrested and imprisoned and this happened  in the same city,  nine months before the Rosa Parks incident when Claudette was only 15. On her refusal to give her seat to a white person, she was arrested in the bus, her schoolbooks went flying, she was handcuffed and imprisoned. She was locked in a cell in an adult jail, and not allowed to make a phone call. Fellow students in the bus told her mother, who reached the jail along with her pastor, Reverend H. H. Johnson. Johnson managed to get her released on bail. But Rosa Parks, middle-class and in her forties, seemed a more acceptable symbol of the movement, and she remains famous in history. The bus boycott, and the move to end segregation, started because of her. To know more about Claudette, the true founder of the movement, read Claudette Colvin: Twice Towards Justice  by Phil Hoose.

Posted in book review., Books, India, Religion, Spirituality

Sri M, Apprenticed to a Himalayan Master

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Sri M is a teacher and guide, a spiritual person , who has set up the Satsang  Foundation in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh. His fame has grown over the years, and recently he was awarded the Padma Bhushan. Born Mumtaz Ali, he is non-sectarian, one of those who belongs to no religion, or all religions, though he also delves deep into Hindu texts such as the Upanishads. Recently I read one of his books, Apprenticed to a Himalayan Master.

I had been wanting to read it as I knew him when he was Mumtaz Ali and headed the Neelbagh School, a school for rural children started by the brilliant educator David Horsburgh. Even in those days, in the 1990s, I was intrigued by his stories of his spiritual quest, and urged him to write them down.  He also had a prodigious memory, and I recollect he could recite the entire Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit.

At some point he moved away from Neelbagh, and became Sri M, starting his ashram in Madanapalle. Along with a small group, he once led a peace march from Kanyakumari to Kashmir, has opened other educational institutions and given talks across the world.

This book, his autobiography, is not for sceptics as it contains some fantastic material, difficult to believe. Are there really Nagas who can descend from some other world? His many experiences with his teacher, his different names, and his life in the Himalayas are all narrated here. For me, however, the book was more interesting for its cultural portrayal , beginning with his early childhood, how as a Muslim boy he was allowed to enter a temple, and his family’s harmonious relationships with their Hindu neighbours. The book also has a wealth of information on other historical spiritual people, and is valuable for  this, not only for the insights it provides. Sri M believes in the truths of ancient Hindu texts, but at the same time has not denied his roots in his birth religion of Islam, or lost his empathy for people of all religions.

I have not written about the details of his life here, as these are easily available on the internet.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted in Books, Chekhov, Literature, Sri Aurobindo

Living in solitude

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A man lives in a room for 15 years, without contact with the outside world. He gets his food, and he  can ask for other items, and he stocks up on books. This is part of a story written by Anton Chekhov [1860-1904], the noted Russian writer. The story is called The Bet, and it begins with a discussion on the death penalty, an argument between a lawyer and a banker. The banker feels it is better to die then live a life in prison, but the lawyer disagrees. Next the bet takes place–the banker offers him 2 million rubles if he will endure a life alone in one room for fifteen years. The lawyer takes up the challenge. Initially, as he settles into the room, he is unhappy, but then he begins to read. As he reads, he starts to understand the futility of money, and gets a glimpse of the true meaning of life. The fifteen years has almost come to an end, the banker meanwhile has lost all his money. He thinks of killing the lawyer, and creeps into his room, where he finds the lawyer asleep, with a note written to him, stating that he has understood life, and does not want the money. The banker silently leaves the room, and the lawyer escapes from there before the fifteen years have quite ended, thus freeing the banker from his pledge.

I read this powerful story long ago as a teenager, and the memory of it remained with me. I loved the idea of spending fifteen years in a room, with everything taken care of, reading and reading. I think the story is just a device, used to indicate the power of words, and of the true meaning of life.

And there was one person, who actually lived like this through his own choice, and that was Sri Aurobindo. More on him later.

Posted in Books, History, world history

Books on North Korea

This week  I have read a number of books on North Korea. For those who are interested, here is a brief summary.

  1. Pachinko by Min Jin Lee. This is a work of fiction, with a historical background. The story covers about eight decades, set in both Korea and Japan, and its aim is really to depict the complexities of the lives of ordinary Koreans, first under Japanese occupation, and then after the division into North and South Korea. The negative Japanese attitude to Koreans is clearly brought out.
  2. Dear Leader by Jang Jin-Sung. An incredible book by someone high up in the hierarchy of North Korea, who then escaped to the South. The predictive reality of Orwell’s 1984 is clear in this book, as while working for the government the author had to take on a fake South Korean name, and write in praise of the North as if he was writing from the South.
  3. A River in Darkness by Masaji Ishikawa. An apt title for a really dark book about the poor conditions in North Korea, a life of deprivation and starvation. The author finally escapes, but it is not exactly a happy ending. Being half-Japanese, he was accepted neither in Korean nor in Japanese society.
  4. The Girl with Seven Names by Hyeonseo Lee. Another harrowing escape story from North Korea. However, life in North Korea was much better for a Korean, rather than a half-Japanese. She writes of a close knit society, good neighbours, and prosperity during the 1960s and 1970s when the North was well-funded by China and the USSR.
  5. In Order to Live by Yeonmi Park. Another escape story, and a description of life in North Korea.

All these books also provide descriptions of the typical way of life in North Korea.

 

 

Posted in Books, Writers, Writing

When I met Alan Sillitoe

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Apart from Hermann Hesse, Thomas Mann, Alexander Solzhenitsyn and a few others, one of my favourite writers, though very different from them, is Alan Sillitoe [1928-2010]. It was after I read his brilliant short story, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, that I began reading his other books, among which my favourite is The Storyteller. A working class boy, Sillitoe started work at the age of 14 in a bicycle factory, but went on to become a world famous writer.

I thought of him today because of a question posed on social media, have you ever met a famous writer and what effect did this have on your writing? Of course, I have met many well-known Indian writers, my mother being one of them! But among international writers, the one I remember is Alan Sillitoe.

It was 1979 or 80 perhaps. He came to India, and then to JNU in New Delhi. I don’t remember if he gave any public talks, but he spoke specifically to a small group at the history centre. He was simple and informal, and during the interactive talk, he said that he loved maps. Those were pre-digital days, and after the talk I took him to see our collection of 1 inch to 1 mile Survey of India maps. They were not easily available and could not be accessed by the public. Acquired for a special project, a form had to be filled and signed every year stating that the maps were safe and secure.

Sillitoe spent some time looking at them and seemed fascinated. We discussed his books, he was surprised that I had read them all and was such a fan. What effect did the meeting have on me as a writer? None, as I wasn’t a writer then, and had no idea I would become one. But his books, and the simplicity of his writing, certainly influenced me.